Polyp Detection in CT Colonography: Performance of a CAD Scheme Incorporating 3D MTANNs on False-Negative Polyps in a Multicenter Clinical Trial
We developed computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for detection of polyps in CT colonography (CTC) and evaluating our CAD scheme with false-negative polyps in a large multicenter clinical trial in collaboration with Don C. Rockey, M.D., the Southwest Medical Center at the University of Texas. A major challenge in CAD schemes for detection of polyps in CTC is the detection of difficultEpolyps which radiologists are likely to miss. Our purpose was to develop a CAD scheme incorporating 3D massive-training artificial neural networks (3D MTANNs) and to evaluate its performance on false-negative (missedE cases in a large multicenter clinical trial. We developed an initial CAD scheme consisting of colon segmentation based on mathematical morphology, detection of polyp candidates based on intensity-based and morphologic feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis for classification. For reduction of false-positive (FP) detections, we developed a mixtureEof seven expert 3D MTANNs designed to differentiate between polyps and seven types of non-polyps, including folds, stool, the ileocecal valve, and rectal tubes. Our independent database consisted of CTC scans of 614 patients obtained from a large multicenter clinical trial in which 15 institutions participated nationwide. Each patient was scanned in the supine and prone positions with collimations of 1.0-2.5 mm and reconstruction intervals of 1.0-2.5 mm. All patients underwent reference-standardEoptical colonoscopy. One hundred fifty-five patients had clinically significant polyps. Among them, about 45% patients received false-negative interpretations in CTC. For testing our CAD scheme with 3D MTANNs, 14 cases with 14 polyps/masses were randomly selected from the false-negative cases where lesions were visible in both supine and prone scans retrospectively. Lesion sizes ranged from 6-35 mm, with an average of 10 mm. The initial CAD scheme detected 71.4% (12/14) of missedEpolyps, including sessile polyps and polyps on folds, with 18.9 (264/14) FPs per patient. The 3D MTANNs removed 75% (197/264) of the FPs without loss of any true positives; thus, the performance of our CAD scheme was improved to 4.8 (67/14) FPs per patient. With our CAD scheme incorporating 3D MTANNs, 71.4% of polyps missedEby radiologists in the trial were detected correctly, with a reasonable number of FPs. Our CAD scheme would be useful for detecting difficultEpolyps which radiologists are likely to miss, thus potentially improving radiologistsEsensitivity in their detection of polyps in CTC.